Speech Sound Disorders

 

<img src="flashcard.jpg" alt="mom and child during speech therapy">

For your convenience, The Speech Dynamic provides speech therapy in your home or school. Weekly homework will be assigned in order to ensure carryover of skills throughout the week. We work with students and their families to re mediate speech sounds and phonological processes.

When a child has a Speech Disorder, they are unable to produce, initiate, or imitate speech sounds correctly or fluently. Speech disorders can affect a child’s ability to communicate, decrease their self-confidence, and have been correlated with later language and reading disabilities.

We expect a child to be understood by:

18 months: 25% intelligible

24 months: 50-75% intelligible

36 months: 75% intellgible

By age 4, children should be 100% intelligible (Gleason, 1988).

Speech Disorders can have several different origin. The most common include the following:

Articulation Impairment: Articulation is the process by which sounds, syllables, and words are formed when your tongue, jaw, teeth, lips, and palate alter the air stream coming from the vocal folds. When an individual cannot produce or distort an age-expected sound/s, it draws attention away from the speaker’s message. Articulation disorders are motor-based errors that can occur among people of any age; however, they are most common in children whose articulators  (jaw, tongue, etc.) have not developed properly.

Phonological Impairment: A phonological disorder is a simplification of the sound system that also affects intelligibility. Students with phonological process problems demonstrate difficulty in acquiring a phonological system; involving organizing the patterns of sounds in the brain and the output, not necessarily in the motor production.  A phonological process is a patterned modification of the adult speech system.  For example, a phonological process called fronting means a child always produces the sounds k and g (made with the back of the tongue) as a t or d (made in the front of the tongue).

Bowen, C. (2011). Table 3: Elimination of Phonological Processes. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/ on [insert the date that you retrieved the file here].

Table 3
Elimination of Phonological Processes in Typical Development

Phonological processes are typically gone by these ages (in years ; months)

PHONOLOGICAL PROCESS EXAMPLE GONE BY APPROXIMATELY
Pre-vocalic voicing pig = big

3;0

Word-final de-voicing pig = pick

3;0

Final consonant deletion comb = coe

3;3

Fronting car = tar
ship = sip

3;6

Consonant harmony mine = mime
kittycat = tittytat

3;9

Weak syllable deletion elephant = efant
potato = tato
television =tevision
banana = nana

4;0

Cluster reduction

spoon = poon
train = chain
clean = keen

4;0

Gliding of liquids

run = one
leg = weg
leg = yeg

5;0

Stopping /f/ fish = tish

3;0

Stopping /s/ soap = dope

3;0

Stopping /v/ very = berry

3;6

Stopping /z/ zoo = doo

3;6

Stopping ‘sh’ shop = dop

4;6

Stopping ‘j’ jump = dump

4;6

Stopping ‘ch’ chair = tare

4;6

Stopping voiceless ‘th’ thing = ting

5;0

Stopping voiced ‘th’ them = dem

5;0

 

 

 

 

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